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University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture has in 2011 established the Center on Salutogenesis. We are today responsible for the a the website We are running a systematic and analytical research synthesis on salutogenic research 1992-up to date. The website is a continuation of a former one located in Helsinki, Finland. The new website is now in Swedish and in English.

We continuously update the sites including the database (only in English). However, to build up and keep it  updated is time consuming. Therefore we invite authors of scientific papers published in peer reviewed journals to join us in this task. Please fill in a review protocol (in English) of your study in line with the presented model. Please send your review protocol to the Responsible Editor of the website, Monica Eriksson. We will thereafter put the information into the Database. This is a possibility for Authors to spread their findings to all of us interested in the field of salutogenesis. Thank you for your cooperation!


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Predictors of sick leave owing to neck or low back pain: a 12-year longitudinal cohort study in a rural male population

farmers and non-farmers
Aged 40 - 60
Longitudinal, 12-year follow-up

Chi-square-test, Multiple logistic regression models, Odds ratio, T-test
To analyse whether individual, work-related or lifestyle factors assessed at baseline, could predict subsequent sick leave owing to neck or lower back pain over a 12-year period.
SOC Scale
Statistical data
Statistical data

1990–1991 N= 1,405 (survey 1). Participation rate 75,8 %

2002–2003 N= 836 (survey 2). Participation rate 67,6%


SOC: Units: 836, Mean: 151.8, SD: 19.0, Median: 153, Range: 91–201, Missing: 0

No sick leave (N=775) mean or %: 152.1, Sick leave (N=61) mean or %: 147.4

Other measures: Edholm’s activity scale, BMI, tobacco and alcohol consumption physical activity, individual factors (age, marital status, education level)
Main result

836 men reported having had neck or low back pain during the year prior to survey 1. These 836 men constitute the study cohort.


61 of the 836 reported sick leave owing to neck or low back problems at least once during the follow-up period. Somewhat fewer (48) reported having a specific neck or back diagnosis during follow-up and this was strongly correlated with sick leave. Men with sick leave reported lower physical workload and lower work control, and fewer were self-employed than men who had not been on sick leave. 28 % of the med reporting sick leave used snuff daily compared to 14 % of the others. Higher alcohol consumption and sedentary leisure time were also related to sick leave in crude analysis.


Self-employment independently predicted a lower risk of sick leave and perceived work control showed a non-significant tendency in the same direction. Snuff use and sedentary leisure time independently doubled the odds of sick leave. The strongest association with sick leave was having received a specific neck or back diagnosis during the follow-up period. 

Holmberg, S, Thelin, A. Predictors of sick leave owing to neck or low back pain: a 12-year
longitudinal cohort study in a rural male population.
Ann Agric Environ
Med. 2010 Dec;17(2):251-7
Inserted: 18.01.2011 15:37:42
Updated: 27.06.2013 10:28:02